Posts Tagged 'Pentecost'

For June 8, 2014: Pentecost, Year A

The Reading            Numbers 11:24-30

The book of Numbers tells of the people of Israel wandering in the wilderness. As the current reading opens, Moses has cried out for help in dealing with the people’s complaints, and the Lord has commanded him to gather seventy elders to manage things. Then something Pentecost-like happens.

The Response            Psalm 104:25-35, 37

Psalm 104 celebrates the power of the Lord, who has only to look at the earth to make it tremble—but it also celebrates the wisdom of the Lord in creating and sustaining quite simply all that there is.

The Second Lesson            Acts 2:1-21

The name Pentecost comes from the phrase pentekoste hemera ‘fiftieth day’, by which Greek-speaking Jews like Luke referred to the feast of Shavuot or First Fruits fifty days after Passover. As Luke tells it, all the nationalities converging on Jerusalem to be Israelite for this Shavuot experience mind-bending phenomena.

The Gospel            John 20:19-23

The Gospel reading takes us back to the evening of the Resurrection. The disciples have heard rumors but can’t entirely believe them—and then, quite unexpectedly, Jesus appears alive among them.

 

Ponderables

The readings for Pentecost all bear on the gift of the Holy Spirit. The psalmist’s account is the most orthodox in reminding us that all life on earth is itself the gift of the Spirit as the Lord chooses. The remaining lessons show human reactions to the gift appearing where it’s not expected. As Numbers tells it, the Spirit that comes on the elders in the wilderness is diverted from Moses and, worse, given to two men who aren’t even at the tent with the other 68; Moses’ assistant Joshua reacts to news of the errant gift with what sounds like jealousy. John 20:19-23 shows us the Spirit as simply Jesus’ breath—but in verse 25 Thomas will declare that, because Jesus didn’t appear to him, it can’t have happened. In the familiar account of Acts 2, the Spirit comes as wind and fire and leads the disciples huddled in Jerusalem to speak in other languages; some onlookers wonder how mere Galilean fisherman could possibly be so gifted while others simply dismiss them as publicly drunk, or at least full of spirits less pure.

As shocking as the flame and languages are, however, Peter’s explanation includes assertions that are even more eye-opening to those in Jerusalem and all the welter of nationalities that have converged on Jerusalem to be Israelite experience two utterly mind-bending phenomena: “God’s people” means absolutely everyone.

How often do we take it upon ourselves to decide where and how and to whom the Spirit ought to be given? And how do we help God help us stop doing that?

For April 27, 2014: Second Sunday of Easter, Year A

The Reading            Acts 2:14a, 22-32

The second chapter of Acts opens with Pentecost: the Holy Spirit has just caused the disciples to speak in other languages. The shock this evokes in the crowds and the Holy Spirit impel Peter—the very person who had denied Jesus three times and then slunk off shamefaced into the night—to explain in a rousing speech.

The Response            Psalm 16

Peter paraphrased parts of Psalm 16 in his first sermon to the people of Judea. The psalm celebrates God’s goodness and protection in terms that remind us of Jesus’ suffering and his triumph. It is also reminiscent of Psalm 23: whatever difficulties may arise, our hope is in God, and it is well founded.

The Epistle            1 Peter 1:3-9

The first epistle of Peter is addressed to churches in and around Asia Minor—modern-day Turkey, for the most part—whose members were being persecuted in their local communities for beliefs that differed from those of their Jewish or pagan communities. The opening passage vividly calls believers to rejoice in the faith.

The Gospel            John 20:19-31

This gospel passage spans a week. On the day on which Jesus was raised, he suddenly appears to the disciples in a locked room. They rejoice—except for Thomas, who isn’t there. A week later, Thomas is among the disciples when Jesus suddenly appears again.

 

Ponderables

For the weeks in Easter season, the first readings each Sunday come not from the Old Testament but from the book of the Acts of the Apostles, which recounts the activity the disciples who followed Jesus in his earthly life as they live into the discipline he taught them and lead others to do the same. The first of these readings skips ahead in time to Pentecost. This reading is assigned to the second Sunday of Easter partly because it is Peter’s first public proclamation of the gospel; it also begins to introduce the concept (which, immediately following the Resurrection, the disciples had not yet assimilated) that the proper audience for the faith is all the world.

The first epistle of Peter, which will be read in church for the next several weeks, was probably not written by Peter himself: an illiterate Galilean fisherman would have known some Greek but not enough to compose the intricately structured sentences of 1 Peter 1:3-9. Whoever wrote it, it continues the themes of Jesus’ suffering and faith and our hope that are sounded in Acts and in Psalm 16.

Unsurprisingly, this week’s gospel reading and next week’s follow the disciples through the challenging early days following the Resurrection, as they struggle to make sense of what has happened. It is easy, with the hindsight of almost twenty-one centuries, to sneer at the skepticism of Thomas—but how many of us, believing ourselves badly let down by someone in whom we had reposed great hope, do exactly the same?

Again, however, the psalm tells us that God’s goodness is greater even than the very greatest heartbreak and disappointment. Given a world whose people almost cannot help but be skeptical of help, how can we as Christians live so as to make the case to them that Jesus is trustworthy and worth following?

For May 19, 2013: Pentecost

The Reading            Genesis 11:1-9

The first reading today, from the book of Genesis, explains how human beings created by the one God of Israel have come to speak so many different languages: they imagined that they could work and scheme their way to heaven, but God had other plans.  As we will see later, however, the story does not end here.

The Response            Psalm 104:25-35, 37b

“O Lord, how manifold are your works! in wisdom you have made them all.”

The Epistle            Acts 2:1-21

The story of the first Pentecost in the book of Acts is even more familiar than the story of the tower of Babel. The Pentecost story also involves people and languages. During today’s reading, if all goes according to plan, we will hear Acts 2:4 read in Arabic, Hebrew, Japanese, Samoan, Choctaw, Russian, Croatian, Greek, Latin, Italian, Spanish, French, Norwegian, Dutch, and Old English, and later we will hear the Lord’s Prayer in all of those languages. God’s grace through Jesus works not for division but for unity, and our differences cease to divide us.

The Gospel            John 14:8-17 (25-27)

“I will ask the Father, and he will give you another Advocate, to be with you forever. This is the Spirit of truth.”

 

In lieu of further thoughts, I offer the language texts that we read today and some comments on the languages.

The language texts that follow are renderings of Acts 2:4—“All of them were filled with the Holy Spirit and began to speak in other languages, as the Spirit gave them ability”—in various languages; for most languages that are not written in a Roman alphabet I have found, devised, or begged transliterations. Within language families I have underlined cognates—related words—to show the commonalities within the differences.

1. The Semitic language family includes Arabic, Hebrew, and the ancient Phoenician language. Semitic word roots typically have three consonants; vowel patterns work like inflections to signal grammatical information, so in classical Arabic the aaa pattern gives a verb (kataba ‘he wrote’, malaka ‘he owned/seized/ ruled’, nazala ‘he dismounted’, lamasa ‘he touched’); the ā-i pattern, a doer of the action (kātib ‘writer’, mālik ‘owner’); the i-ā pattern, a result of the action (kitāb ‘book’, nizāl ‘lining up for battle where one dismounted’); ma‑Ø-a-/i- a place where something is done (maktab ‘office’, manzil ‘stopping place’, malmas ‘place touched’, mamlaka ‘kingdom’), and so on. The transliterations here differ somewhat, but ‘holy’ is q-d-s or q-d-sh and ‘spirit’ is r-w-ḥ orr-w-ch.

Arabic: (transliterated)

wametla aljamey‘ min alruwḥ alqudus wābetdawa yatakalamuwna biilsinah ākhrā kamā ā‘khṭāhumu alruwḥu ān yanṭiquwā

Hebrew: (transliterated: credit to the Rev. Andy Welch)

Vekullâm nimleû rûach haqadôsh veheiheilû ledabeir bilshônôt acheirôt kefî shenâtenâ lâhem hârûach ledabeir.

2. The linguistic classification of Japanese is somewhat subject to dispute; the Japonic language family is not very closely related to other languages, though a relationship to Korean is possible and some scholars place these languages in the larger Altaic family. Even though Japanese is written partly in Chinese characters, it is not related to Chinese: unlike Mandarin, Japanese is not a tone language and it is highly inflected. Seirei is ‘Holy Spirit’.

Japanese: (transliterated)

Suruto, ichidō wa seirei ni mitasare, mitama ga kataraseru mama ni, iroiro no takoku no kotoba de kataridashi ta.

3. Choctaw is a Muskogean language originally spoken in and near modern Mississippi; the ancestors of most speakers were relocated to Oklahoma in the 1830s. Choctaw is closely related to Chickasaw and may be very distantly related to Kumeyaay or Diegueño, though the evidence is not strong. The letter v is used to write a vowel that is something like the first vowel in English about. Shilombish is ‘spirit’ and holitopa is ‘holy’.

Choctaw:

yvmohmi na, moyumvt Shilombish Holitopa yvt isht anukfokvt alota ma, anumpa inla puta anumpula he a, Shilombish vt apelahanchi na, okla anumpulit ishtia tok oke.

4. The Karen or Kayin languages, spoken in Burma (Myanmar), are members of the Tibeto-Burman grouping along with several languages of China (though neither Mandarin nor Cantonese). Karen languages, like many other languages of eastern Asia, are tone languages: not only are words distinguished by different vowels and consonants, they are also distinguished by six distinct tones or pitch contours. စီဆ is ‘holy’ and သး ‘spirit’.

Sgaw: (Myanmar Bible, original script)

ဒီးပှၤခဲ လၢာ်လၢထီၣ်ပှဲၤထီၣ်ဒီးသးစီဆှံ, ဒီးကတိၤတၢ်လၢအ ပျ့ၤအဂၤတဖၣ်, ဒ်သးန့ၣ်ဒုးကတိၤအီၤအသိးလီၤ.

5. The Austronesian language family probably originated in or near the island of Taiwan, off the coast of China. The Greek root nesos means ‘island’: most Austronesian languages are spoken on islands, from Madagascar off the east coast of Africa to the Easter Islands off the west coast of South America. The Polynesian languages of the South Pacific include Hawaiian, Fijian, and Samoan, all languages with relatively few consonants and simple consonant-vowel syllables. In Samoan, Agaga is ‘Spirit’ and Pa‘ia is ‘Holy Spirit’.

Samoan:

‘Ua fa‘atūtūmuina fo‘i i latou uma i le Agaga Pa‘ia, ma ‘ua amata loa ‘ona tautalatala i gagana ‘ese‘ese, e pei lava ‘ona faia e le Agaga ‘ua mafai ai e i latou ‘ona tautala atu.

6. The Indo-European language grouping has members spread across the globe. It includes the Slavic, Hellenic, Romance, and Germanic families and more.

a. The Slavic language family includes Russian and a number of languages spoken in Eastern Europe, such as Czech and Polish. Many but not all Slavic languages are written in Cyrillic characters; Croatian and Polish are among the languages that are written in roman script.  Dukh- and Duh- are ‘Spirit’; svyato- and sveto- are ‘holy’. Croatian and Serbian are essentially the same language.

Russian: (transliterated)

I ispolnilis’ vsye Dukha Svyatogo, i nachali govorit’ na inykh yazykakh, kak Dukh daval im provyeshchyevat’.

Croatian:

Svi se napuniše Duha Svetoga i počeše govoriti drugim jezicima, kako im već Duh davaše zboriti.

b. Greek is the sole surviving member of the Hellenic family. The Greek alphabet is descended from the Phoenician alphabet, though the Greeks converted a number of Phoenician consonant signs to symbols for vowels. Pneuma- is ‘breath’ or ‘spirit’; agiou, as in the Hagia Sophia, is ‘holy’.

Greek: (transliterated)

kai eplēsthēsan pantes pneumatos agiou kai ērxanto lalein eterais glōssais kathōs to pneuma edidou apophthengesthai autois

c. The founding member of the Romance language family is Latin, the language of the Romans. It is no longer in use as an everyday language, except in the Vatican, but its traces are strong in not only in the Romance languages but in English. Among its modern descendants are Italian, Spanish, and French. Latin –pl– as in repleti ‘filled up, replete’ often shows up in Italian as –pi-, as in ripieni ‘filled’ and in Spanish as –ll-, as in llenos ‘filled’ (so chiles relleños are quite literally filled-up or replete chilis). ‘Spirit’ is Spiritus/Espíritu/Esprit, and ‘holy’ is sanct-/santo/saint.

Latin:

et repleti sunt omnes Spiritu Sancto et coeperunt loqui aliis linguis prout Spiritus Sanctus dabat eloqui illis

Italian:

Cosí furono tutti ripieni di Spirito Santo e cominciarono a parlare in altre lingue, secondo che lo Spirito dava loro di esprimersi.

Spanish:

Todos fueron llenos del Espíritu Santo y comenzaron a hablar en diferentes lenguas, según el Espíritu les concedía expresarse.

French:

Aussitôt, ils furent tous remplis du Saint-Esprit et commencèrent à parler dans différentes langues, chacun s’exprimant comme le Saint-Esprit lui donnait de le faire.

d. The Germanic language family has three main subgroups: Northern Germanic (Norwegian, Danish, Swedish, and Icelandic, but not Finnish, which is closely related to Hungarian), East Germanic (all of the languages of which are extinct), and West Germanic (including German, Dutch and English). Heilig-, hellig, and halg– are cognates of Modern English ‘holy’. Geest and gast mean ‘spirit’, though Modern English ghost now means specifically ‘spirit of a dead person’. The Northern Germanic languages instead have ånd or ande, from a Proto-Germanic word meaning ‘breath or spirit’ which is cognate with an Old English word meaning ‘malice, envy, hatred’ (that is, bad spirits) and with Latin anima ‘breath or soul’.

Norwegian:

Da blev de alle fylt med den Hellige Ånd, og de begynte å tale med andre tunger, alt efter som Ånden gav dem å tale.

Dutch:

En zij werden allen vervuld met den Heiligen Geest, en begonnen te spreken met andere talen, zoals de Geest hun gaf uit te spreken.

Old English:

and hi wurdon ða ealle gefyllede mid þam Halgum Gaste, and ongunnon to sprecenne mid mislicum gereordum, be ðam þe se Halga Gast him tæhte.

For August 12, 2012: Proper 14, Year B

The Reading            2 Samuel 18:5-15, 31-33

When the prophet Nathan confronted David about Uriah, he prophesied trouble arising from within David’s own house. It comes to pass: David’s eldest son Amnon rapes his half-sister Tamar; when David takes no action, her full brother Absalom has Amnon killed, goes into exile, is allowed to return to court but is not seen by his father, and then leads a rebellion of the “men of Israel” against the servants of David the king.

The Response            Psalm 130

The Epistle            Ephesians 4:25-5:2

Last week’s reading from the epistle to the Ephesians explained why (and, briefly, how) to live as God’s children. This week’s reading goes into specifics: we are neither to do nor to say anything that either flows from or contributes to strife and bitterness. This is excellent advice, from the first century in Ephesus to the twenty-first century in El Cajon.

The Gospel            John 6:35, 41-51

 

Further thoughts

The career of David, King of Israel, is full of ironies large and small and of intrigue and deception. The name of David’s eldest son, Amnon, means ‘faithful’: he is the one who feigns illness so he can rape his half-sister Tamar. This rape goes unpunished by King David. Tamar’s full brother, Absalom, whose name means ‘father of peace’, bides his time, throws a party for the purpose of murdering Amnon, then flees into exile. David mourns dead Amnon and then mourns the exiled Absalom. After three years David’s general Joab maneuvers David into bringing Absalom back from exile, but David will not see him. Two years later Absalom finally gets an audience with his father by torching one of Joab’s fields. At this point Absalom launches a conspiracy to lead Israel into revolt against their anointed king. David and those loyal to him, including Joab, flee across the Jordan, leaving behind two priests as spies and a foreigner who sows disinformation in Absalom’s camp. We find out that Saul’s grandson Mephibosheth, whom David has housed and protected, has thrown his lot in with Absalom when Mephibosheth’s servant Ziba brings refreshments to David’s troops along with a side dish of ambition.

Today’s reading picks up just before the decisive battle. David’s side wins; the slaughter is great, but the passage takes pains to tell us that the battle claims fewer lives than does the forest of Ephraim. At the end of the day, when the couriers come with news, David’s concern is not for how the battle has gone or how his troops have fared but rather for his rebel son.

David’s outburst on learning of Absalom’s death is often singled out as an allegory of God’s yearning love for us no matter what. It is that, to be sure. A case can also be made for the whole of David’s story as a cautionary tale about thirsting for power and love. David’s thirsts led him to tell lies, bed Bathsheba, and let his oldest son, the rapist, off the hook. The epistle and the gospel provide the corrective. When we walk in love as Christ loved us, we begin to discern that the way Jesus gives to slake our thirsts is not to grasp for power and love but truly and deeply to give them.

Acts 2:4: A selection of languages

The language texts that follow are renderings of Acts 2:4, “All of them were filled with the Holy Spirit and began to speak in other languages, as the Spirit gave them ability,” in the various languages which we heard read (or at least attempted) for Pentecost at St Alban’s.

Where a language is not written in a Roman alphabet I have found, devised, or begged a transliteration.

Within language families I have underlined cognates—related words—to show the commonalities within the differences.

1. The Semitic language family includes Arabic and Hebrew and several languages of northern Africa (such as Amharic and Tigrinya). The transliterations here differ somewhat, but Holy Spirit is alerwh aleqdes in Arabic and ruach haqadosh in Hebrew.

Arabic (transliteration, computer-generated and a bit doubtful)

wametla alejmey’ men alerwh aleqdes wabetdawa yetkelmewn balesnh akhera kema a’etahem alerwh an yenteqwa

Hebrew (transliteration: credit to the Rev. Andy Welch)

Vekullâm nimleû rûach haqadôsh veheiheilû ledabeir bilshônôt acheirôt kefî shenâtenâ lâhem hârûach ledabeir.

2. The linguistic classification of Japanese is somewhat subject to dispute; the Japonic language family is not very closely related to other languages, though a relationship to Korean is possible and some scholars place these languages in the Altaic family. Though Japanese is written in Chinese characters, however, it is not related to Chinese.

Japanese (transliteration)

surutodoudeshou. sono ba niita nin ha, hitori nokora zu shouryou ni man 
tasare, shiri moshinai gaikokugo de hanashi hajime tadehaarimasenka. shouryou ga, soredakeno chikara wo 
atae tekudasattanodesu.

3. Choctaw is a Native American language originally spoken in and near modern Mississippi. It is a Muskogean language, closely related to Chickasaw. It may be very distantly related to Kumeyaay or Diegueño, though the evidence is not very strong.

Choctaw

yvmohmi na, moyumvt Shilombish Holitopa yvt isht anukfokvt alota ma, anumpa inla puta anumpula he a, Shilombish vt apelahanchi na, okla anumpulit ishtia tok oke.

4. The Karen or Kayin languages are spoken in Burma (Myanmar); they are members of the Tibeto-Burman branch of the Sino-Tibetan family, which also includes many varieties of Chinese.

Sgaw (original script)

ဒီးပှၤခဲ လၢာ်လၢထီၣ်ပှဲၤထီၣ်ဒီးသးစီဆှံ, ဒီးကတိၤတၢ်လၢအ ပျ့ၤအဂၤတဖၣ်, ဒ်သးန့ၣ်ဒုးကတိၤအီၤအသိးလီၤ.

5. The Indo-European language grouping has members spread across the globe. It includes the Slavic, Hellenic, Romance, and Germanic families and more.

a. The Slavic language family is part of the larger Indo-European grouping, along with Czech, Bulgarian, Ukrainian, Polish, and a number of other languages spoken in eastern Europe.

Russian (transliteration)

I ispolnilis’ vsye Dukha Svyatovo, i nachali govorit’ na inykh yazykakh, kak Dukh daval im provyeshchyevat’.

Czech

I naplněni jsou všickni Duchem svatým, a počali mluviti jinými jazyky, jakž ten Duch dával jim vymlouvati.

b. Greek is the sole surviving member of the Hellenic family.

Greek (transliterated)

kai eplēsthēsan pantes pneumatos agiou kai ērxanto lalein eterais glōssais kathōs to pneuma edidou apophthengesthai autois

c. The founding member of the Romance language family is Latin, the language of the Romans. It is no longer in use as an everyday language, except in the Vatican City, but its traces are very strong in English. Among the modern descendants of Latin are French and Spanish.

Latin

et repleti sunt omnes Spiritu Sancto et coeperunt loqui aliis linguis prout Spiritus Sanctus dabat eloqui illis

Spanish

Todos fueron llenos del Espíritu Santo y comenzaron a hablar en diferentes lenguas, según el Espíritu les concedía expresarse.

French

Aussitôt, ils furent tous remplis du Saint-Esprit et commencèrent à parler dans différentes langues, chacun s’exprimant comme le Saint-Esprit lui donnait de le faire.

d. The Germanic language family includes the Scandinavian languages (except for Finnish, which is closely related to Hungarian), German, Dutch, and English. Old English was spoken in the British Isles before about 1100 AD, when French-speaking Normans under William the Conqueror took over.

German: Joy Knight

Und sie wurden alle mit Heiligem Geiste erfüllt und fingen an, in anderen Sprachen zu reden, wie der Geist ihnen gab auszusprechen.

Dutch: Victoria Mayor

En zij werden allen vervuld met den Heiligen Geest, en begonnen te spreken met andere talen, zoals de Geest hun gaf uit te spreken.

Old English: Linnea Lagerquist

and hi wurdon ða ealle gefyllede mid þam Halgum Gaste, and ongunnon to sprecenne mid mislicum gereordum, be ðam þe se Halga Gast him tæhte.

For May 27, 2012: Pentecost, Year B

The Reading            Acts 2:1-21

Pentecost is the birthday of the church. At the first Pentecost, the Holy Spirit came in a powerful way: uneducated Galileans were suddenly able to speak all the languages of the Roman Empire. During today’s reading, if all goes according to plan, we will hear Acts 2:4 read in Arabic, Hebrew, Japanese, Choctaw, Russian, Czech, Greek, Latin, Spanish, French, German, Dutch, and Old English.  Listen for the similarities: in the Spirit our differences, rather than dividing us, can enrich us.

 

The Response            Psalm 104:25-35,37

 

The Epistle            Romans 8:22-27

The Pentecost narrative we just heard shows us the Holy Spirit coming like wind and fire and with all the languages of the world. In the Gospel, Jesus promises us the Holy Spirit as advocate and teacher. In between, the book of Romans gives us the Spirit interceding for us when we can’t even pray.

 

The Gospel            John 15:26-27; 16:4b-15

 

Further thoughts

I write this a week after the fact. Our little church, St Alban’s El Cajon, did not quite pull off all of the languages promised in my preface to Acts 2:1-21—but we did manage most, plus Sgaw Karen, and that was a very great grace. Indeed, Pentecost is about grace and gifts.

One of the graces of this holy day of Pentecost is the selection from Psalm 104. The selection praises God’s manifold works, all of them made in wisdom. The first few examples are unsurprising—the earth and its creatures, the great wide sea and the life that teems within it. The psalmist them makes some choices of examples that are intriguing and delightful.

Verse 27 builds on verse 26 by pointing to the ships on the sea. This is intriguing: these are the work of human hands and human ingenuity—but, the psalm suggests, they are as surely in the gift of God, and as surely part of God’s interest, as the living creatures that swarm in the waters below.

The verse goes on to mention Leviathan. This word may mean ‘crocodile’ or ‘whale’ or even ‘sea monster’: clearly not something to be taken lightly. Most translations of this verse render it as does the King James Version: “There go the ships: there is that leviathan, whom thou hast made to play therein.” That is, this formidable creature is made to play: it enjoys itself in its place, and it is supposed to. That is delightful enough. The NRSV translation, which the Episcopal Church uses, represents the verse a little differently, however, by saying that the Lord made Leviathan “for the sport of it”. This suggests that Leviathan exists because, in God’s good judgment, a world with a Leviathan in it is simply irresistibly cool. If the NRSV translators made a mistake here, it is surely an inspired one.

Verses 28 through 29 are justly famous. The NRSV translation mostly gets the point across, but whenever I read these words I think of the King James translation of a similar sentiment from Psalm 145:

The eyes of all wait upon Thee
and thou givest them their meat in due season.
Thou openest thine hand
and satisfiest the desire of every living thing.

The magnificent setting of these words by Jean Berger can be heard at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Rv4pcothYZ8.  As with the tongues of fire, we have our daily bread, our lives, and even our deaths as gifts from the God whose great good pleasure it is to create and to inspire us to be God’s co-creators.


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