Archive for the 'Language' Category

For June 29, 2014: Proper 8, Year A, St Alban’s Day

The Reading            Jeremiah 28:5-9

As this reading opens, most Jews are captive in Babylon, just as Jeremiah prophesied. The prophet Hananiah gladdens the king by predicting an early end to Babylonian rule and restoration of Israel to Jerusalem. Jeremiah responds to Hananiah skeptically: only if a prophet’s words come true is that prophet sent by the Lord.

The Response            Psalm 89:1-4, 15-18

From verse 37 onward, Psalm 89 laments Israel’s subjugation, for which there is no end in sight. The beginning of the psalm, however, celebrates the eternal love of the Lord for David and Israel. The speaker in verses 3-4 and 19b-26 is the Lord.

The Epistle            Romans 6:12-23

The reading from the letter to the Romans continues the argument against persisting in sin because God keeps giving grace. Putting oneself in service to God for righteousness is the slavery that leads away from death and to both sanctification and eternal life.

The Gospel            Matthew 10:40-42

In the reading from Matthew, Jesus finishes his instructions to the disciples as he sends them out. His words are also for us: whoever welcomes anyone—especially as God’s agents, but not exclusively so—welcomes us and Jesus and the Father; moreover, even the humblest of good deeds by or to the humblest looms large to God.

 

Ponderables

June 29, 2014 is the third Sunday after Pentecost or the thirteenth Sunday of Ordinary Time, which covers the two parts of the church year that fall outside the major seasons of Advent, Christmas, Lent and Easter. On this Sunday we also celebrate the feast of St Alban, our patron saint—a week later than usual, partly because the Rev. Allisyn Thomas is here to celebrate the Eucharist with us in her capacity as Canon to the Ordinary.

Wait: Everyday time? Canon to the commonplace? How can we make sense of these two uses?

The term ordinary time originated in the Roman Catholic Church in the 1970s, as part of the liturgical reforms of the Second Vatican Council. Instead of counting Sundays after Epiphany and then Sundays after Pentecost, Catholics started counting all 33 to 34 Sundays as a unit, starting with the four to nine Sundays after Epiphany and resuming after Pentecost; if Ash Wednesday fell early in the year, readings that were skipped in the shorter Epiphany would shift to the end of Pentecost to round out the church year. In English and most modern European languages, that unit is called ordinary time. In the everyday sense of ordinary, the phrase sounds odd—Eucharists that are boring?—so some sources in English assert that ordinary is a corruption of ordinal, as in ordinal numbers: first Sunday, sixteenth Sunday…) That sounds plausible, except that the original 1970s Latin phrase should be tempus ordinalis, and it isn’t: it’s tempus per annum ‘time through the year’.

Let’s shift for a moment to the other ordinary. Its roots go back much farther, to nearly the beginning of the church. While the source of our English word bishop is the Greek episcopos (literally ‘overseer’), Latin also used a term derived from Latin ordo ‘order or rule’: the ordinarius is ‘the one who keeps order’. In English, that would be ordinary, and the word remains in the vocabulary of church law and common law: a judge ordinary has jurisdiction over a case in his own right, as is to be expected, whereas a judge extraordinary has been specially appointed outside her normal sphere. So the Canon to the Ordinary is the clergyperson who assists in carrying out the customary duties of the bishop, such as visiting St Alban’s for its patronal feast day. We can argue, then, that ordinary time is a matter neither of time that is nothing special nor of weeks in sequence but rather of Sundays that are celebrated not for a special feast or fast but because they are Sundays and therefore worthy in their own right.

Acts 2:4: A selection of languages

The language texts that follow are renderings of Acts 2:4, “All of them were filled with the Holy Spirit and began to speak in other languages, as the Spirit gave them ability,” in the various languages which we heard read (or at least attempted) for Pentecost at St Alban’s.

Where a language is not written in a Roman alphabet I have found, devised, or begged a transliteration.

Within language families I have underlined cognates—related words—to show the commonalities within the differences.

1. The Semitic language family includes Arabic and Hebrew and several languages of northern Africa (such as Amharic and Tigrinya). The transliterations here differ somewhat, but Holy Spirit is alerwh aleqdes in Arabic and ruach haqadosh in Hebrew.

Arabic (transliteration, computer-generated and a bit doubtful)

wametla alejmey’ men alerwh aleqdes wabetdawa yetkelmewn balesnh akhera kema a’etahem alerwh an yenteqwa

Hebrew (transliteration: credit to the Rev. Andy Welch)

Vekullâm nimleû rûach haqadôsh veheiheilû ledabeir bilshônôt acheirôt kefî shenâtenâ lâhem hârûach ledabeir.

2. The linguistic classification of Japanese is somewhat subject to dispute; the Japonic language family is not very closely related to other languages, though a relationship to Korean is possible and some scholars place these languages in the Altaic family. Though Japanese is written in Chinese characters, however, it is not related to Chinese.

Japanese (transliteration)

surutodoudeshou. sono ba niita nin ha, hitori nokora zu shouryou ni man 
tasare, shiri moshinai gaikokugo de hanashi hajime tadehaarimasenka. shouryou ga, soredakeno chikara wo 
atae tekudasattanodesu.

3. Choctaw is a Native American language originally spoken in and near modern Mississippi. It is a Muskogean language, closely related to Chickasaw. It may be very distantly related to Kumeyaay or Diegueño, though the evidence is not very strong.

Choctaw

yvmohmi na, moyumvt Shilombish Holitopa yvt isht anukfokvt alota ma, anumpa inla puta anumpula he a, Shilombish vt apelahanchi na, okla anumpulit ishtia tok oke.

4. The Karen or Kayin languages are spoken in Burma (Myanmar); they are members of the Tibeto-Burman branch of the Sino-Tibetan family, which also includes many varieties of Chinese.

Sgaw (original script)

ဒီးပှၤခဲ လၢာ်လၢထီၣ်ပှဲၤထီၣ်ဒီးသးစီဆှံ, ဒီးကတိၤတၢ်လၢအ ပျ့ၤအဂၤတဖၣ်, ဒ်သးန့ၣ်ဒုးကတိၤအီၤအသိးလီၤ.

5. The Indo-European language grouping has members spread across the globe. It includes the Slavic, Hellenic, Romance, and Germanic families and more.

a. The Slavic language family is part of the larger Indo-European grouping, along with Czech, Bulgarian, Ukrainian, Polish, and a number of other languages spoken in eastern Europe.

Russian (transliteration)

I ispolnilis’ vsye Dukha Svyatovo, i nachali govorit’ na inykh yazykakh, kak Dukh daval im provyeshchyevat’.

Czech

I naplněni jsou všickni Duchem svatým, a počali mluviti jinými jazyky, jakž ten Duch dával jim vymlouvati.

b. Greek is the sole surviving member of the Hellenic family.

Greek (transliterated)

kai eplēsthēsan pantes pneumatos agiou kai ērxanto lalein eterais glōssais kathōs to pneuma edidou apophthengesthai autois

c. The founding member of the Romance language family is Latin, the language of the Romans. It is no longer in use as an everyday language, except in the Vatican City, but its traces are very strong in English. Among the modern descendants of Latin are French and Spanish.

Latin

et repleti sunt omnes Spiritu Sancto et coeperunt loqui aliis linguis prout Spiritus Sanctus dabat eloqui illis

Spanish

Todos fueron llenos del Espíritu Santo y comenzaron a hablar en diferentes lenguas, según el Espíritu les concedía expresarse.

French

Aussitôt, ils furent tous remplis du Saint-Esprit et commencèrent à parler dans différentes langues, chacun s’exprimant comme le Saint-Esprit lui donnait de le faire.

d. The Germanic language family includes the Scandinavian languages (except for Finnish, which is closely related to Hungarian), German, Dutch, and English. Old English was spoken in the British Isles before about 1100 AD, when French-speaking Normans under William the Conqueror took over.

German: Joy Knight

Und sie wurden alle mit Heiligem Geiste erfüllt und fingen an, in anderen Sprachen zu reden, wie der Geist ihnen gab auszusprechen.

Dutch: Victoria Mayor

En zij werden allen vervuld met den Heiligen Geest, en begonnen te spreken met andere talen, zoals de Geest hun gaf uit te spreken.

Old English: Linnea Lagerquist

and hi wurdon ða ealle gefyllede mid þam Halgum Gaste, and ongunnon to sprecenne mid mislicum gereordum, be ðam þe se Halga Gast him tæhte.


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