Acts 2:4: A selection of languages

The language texts that follow are renderings of Acts 2:4, “All of them were filled with the Holy Spirit and began to speak in other languages, as the Spirit gave them ability,” in the various languages which we heard read (or at least attempted) for Pentecost at St Alban’s.

Where a language is not written in a Roman alphabet I have found, devised, or begged a transliteration.

Within language families I have underlined cognates—related words—to show the commonalities within the differences.

1. The Semitic language family includes Arabic and Hebrew and several languages of northern Africa (such as Amharic and Tigrinya). The transliterations here differ somewhat, but Holy Spirit is alerwh aleqdes in Arabic and ruach haqadosh in Hebrew.

Arabic (transliteration, computer-generated and a bit doubtful)

wametla alejmey’ men alerwh aleqdes wabetdawa yetkelmewn balesnh akhera kema a’etahem alerwh an yenteqwa

Hebrew (transliteration: credit to the Rev. Andy Welch)

Vekullâm nimleû rûach haqadôsh veheiheilû ledabeir bilshônôt acheirôt kefî shenâtenâ lâhem hârûach ledabeir.

2. The linguistic classification of Japanese is somewhat subject to dispute; the Japonic language family is not very closely related to other languages, though a relationship to Korean is possible and some scholars place these languages in the Altaic family. Though Japanese is written in Chinese characters, however, it is not related to Chinese.

Japanese (transliteration)

surutodoudeshou. sono ba niita nin ha, hitori nokora zu shouryou ni man 
tasare, shiri moshinai gaikokugo de hanashi hajime tadehaarimasenka. shouryou ga, soredakeno chikara wo 
atae tekudasattanodesu.

3. Choctaw is a Native American language originally spoken in and near modern Mississippi. It is a Muskogean language, closely related to Chickasaw. It may be very distantly related to Kumeyaay or Diegueño, though the evidence is not very strong.


yvmohmi na, moyumvt Shilombish Holitopa yvt isht anukfokvt alota ma, anumpa inla puta anumpula he a, Shilombish vt apelahanchi na, okla anumpulit ishtia tok oke.

4. The Karen or Kayin languages are spoken in Burma (Myanmar); they are members of the Tibeto-Burman branch of the Sino-Tibetan family, which also includes many varieties of Chinese.

Sgaw (original script)

ဒီးပှၤခဲ လၢာ်လၢထီၣ်ပှဲၤထီၣ်ဒီးသးစီဆှံ, ဒီးကတိၤတၢ်လၢအ ပျ့ၤအဂၤတဖၣ်, ဒ်သးန့ၣ်ဒုးကတိၤအီၤအသိးလီၤ.

5. The Indo-European language grouping has members spread across the globe. It includes the Slavic, Hellenic, Romance, and Germanic families and more.

a. The Slavic language family is part of the larger Indo-European grouping, along with Czech, Bulgarian, Ukrainian, Polish, and a number of other languages spoken in eastern Europe.

Russian (transliteration)

I ispolnilis’ vsye Dukha Svyatovo, i nachali govorit’ na inykh yazykakh, kak Dukh daval im provyeshchyevat’.


I naplněni jsou všickni Duchem svatým, a počali mluviti jinými jazyky, jakž ten Duch dával jim vymlouvati.

b. Greek is the sole surviving member of the Hellenic family.

Greek (transliterated)

kai eplēsthēsan pantes pneumatos agiou kai ērxanto lalein eterais glōssais kathōs to pneuma edidou apophthengesthai autois

c. The founding member of the Romance language family is Latin, the language of the Romans. It is no longer in use as an everyday language, except in the Vatican City, but its traces are very strong in English. Among the modern descendants of Latin are French and Spanish.


et repleti sunt omnes Spiritu Sancto et coeperunt loqui aliis linguis prout Spiritus Sanctus dabat eloqui illis


Todos fueron llenos del Espíritu Santo y comenzaron a hablar en diferentes lenguas, según el Espíritu les concedía expresarse.


Aussitôt, ils furent tous remplis du Saint-Esprit et commencèrent à parler dans différentes langues, chacun s’exprimant comme le Saint-Esprit lui donnait de le faire.

d. The Germanic language family includes the Scandinavian languages (except for Finnish, which is closely related to Hungarian), German, Dutch, and English. Old English was spoken in the British Isles before about 1100 AD, when French-speaking Normans under William the Conqueror took over.

German: Joy Knight

Und sie wurden alle mit Heiligem Geiste erfüllt und fingen an, in anderen Sprachen zu reden, wie der Geist ihnen gab auszusprechen.

Dutch: Victoria Mayor

En zij werden allen vervuld met den Heiligen Geest, en begonnen te spreken met andere talen, zoals de Geest hun gaf uit te spreken.

Old English: Linnea Lagerquist

and hi wurdon ða ealle gefyllede mid þam Halgum Gaste, and ongunnon to sprecenne mid mislicum gereordum, be ðam þe se Halga Gast him tæhte.

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